Outer space

  Outer space

     Outer space


    is the space between the celestial bodies, including the earth. It
     is not completely empty, but consists of a relative vacuum consisting of low density of particles (mostly hydrogen plasma and helium, as well as electromagnetic radiation, magnetic fields) and neutrons (recent observations have shown that it contains matter and dark energy as well). The baseline temperature, determined by residual radiation due to the Big Bang, is 2,7 Kelvin (k) . Ultra-low-density plasma (less than one hydrogen atom per cubic meter) and high temperature (millions of Kelvin degrees) in intergalactic space are accounted for in most of the ordinary baryon issue in outer space; local concentrations have increased to stars and galaxies. Intergalactic space is larger than the universe, and even galaxies and star systems are mostly empty and planets occupy 
    almost empty space.


    The original Jesuit balloon (at the bottom on the left) used to explain Otto von Guerreg's pump





    There is no specific limit to the beginning of outer space, but in general, the Caraman line at 100 km (62 miles) above sea level was adopted as a starting point for outer space in order to record atmospheric measurements, treaties and space conventions. The general framework of international space law was established through the Outer Space Convention, which was passed through the United Nations in 1967. The Convention prohibits any State from claiming sovereignty over space and allows all States to freely explore space. In 1979, the Moon Convention, which made the roofs of planets and orbits around them, was placed under the authority of the international community. Other provisions of the Convention relating to the peaceful use of outer space have been added by the United Nations but have not prohibited the deployment of weapons in space, including live tests of anti-satellite missiles.

    Humans began to discover the physical space during the 20th century through high-altitude balloon flights, followed by the launch of individual rockets in multiple stages. Yuri Kakarin of the Soviet Union was the first to discover Earth's orbit in 1961. Since then unmanned spacecraft have reached all known planets in the solar system. Due to the high cost of access to the space, the journeys did not exceed the limits of the moon. In 2012, Voyager 1 became the first man-made vehicle to reach the bingeme field.

    Requires access to the lowest earth orbit at speeds of up to 28,100 km / h (17,500 mph), much faster than any conventional vehicle. Outer space is also a challenging environment for human discovery because of the dangers of double space and radiation. Non-gravity has a detrimental effect on human organ function, leading to muscle atrophy and osteoporosis. Manned space flights have been limited to the low Earth and the moon, and the solar system has been unmanned; the rest of outer space remains impossible for humans to use except for the telescope.


    Contents
    1 Exploration
    2 Evolution and condition
    2.1 Environment
    2.2 Influence on human bodies
    3 borders
    4. Legal status
    Earth orbit
    6 areas
    6.1 Terrestrial space
    6.2 The space of the moon
    6.3 Interplanetary space
    6.4 Binjem space
    6.5 Intergalactic space
    7 Explorations and applications
    8 Read also
    9 References
    External links
    Exploration
    In 350 BC, the Greek philosopher Aristotle put forward a proposition that nature detested emptiness and became known as "Horror vacu". This concept was built on the argument of ecology in the fifth century BC by the Greek philosopher Parmenides, who denied the possibility of a vacuum in nature.  On the basis of the idea that space can not exist, in the West and for many centuries they have thought that space can not be empty. At the end of the 17th century, the French philosopher Rene Descartes said that space should be full. 

    There were several schools of thought in ancient China interested in the nature of the sky to carry some of them similar to the modern concept, in the second century AD astronomer Zhang Hing said that the space is infinite and extended and behind a certain mechanism with the sun and around the stars, and the rest of the books Hsuan Yih The sky is not over, and it is empty and free of matter. Similarly, the sun, the moon and the rest of the joint groups of stars float in a space of emptiness and movement is still there. 

    Italian scientist Galileo Galilei realized that the air mass, therefore, is also subject to gravity. In 1640, he demonstrated that the emergent force prevented the vacuum from forming. However, the manufacture of a device that could produce the vacuum was by his pupil "Evangelista Torchelli" in 1643. This experiment produced the first mercury barometer, which caused a scientific sensation in Europe. The French mathematician Blaise Pascal argued that if a column of mercury is airborne, it is obvious that the column is shorter at higher altitudes where atmospheric pressure is lower . In 1648, Nusseibeh, Florin Périer, re-experimented with the BD Dome in central France and found that the length of the column was 3 inches shorter. This decrease in atmospheric pressure was further illustrated by the experience of lifting a half-filled balloon up to the top of the mountain, where the balloon gradually ballooned as it rose and emptied from the air as it fell. 


    The original Jesuit balloon (at the bottom on the left) used to explain Otto von Guerreg's pump
    In 1650, Otto von Goering, the German scientist, created the first pneumatic pump: a device capable of refuting the principle of fear of empty space. Otto has observed correctly that the earth's atmosphere surrounds it like a cortex, and with a density gradually decreasing with elevation, leading him to conclude that the earth and the moon are a vacuum. 

    In the fifteenth century, the German theologian n
    Adapted from Encyclopedia:https: Wikipedia

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